Hedgehog: Discovering the Secrets of this Charming Nocturnal Animal

A handy guide to the enchanting world of this imaginative little creature

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By Alex

The hedgehog is renowned for its prickly spines and a remarkable defensive maneuver that sets it apart. When faced with danger, its back muscles activate, allowing it to curl up and straighten its spines, rendering it nearly invulnerable. This extraordinary ability has inspired the saying “clam up.”

Explore more about the hedgehog, including its habits and guidelines for raising it in a home or garden.

Hedgehog: Distinctive Traits and Appearance

The hedgehog, a captivating creature commonly found in countryside areas, home gardens, and along roadsides, shares its insectivore status with moles. Thriving on a diet of invertebrates and small snakes, the hedgehog constructs a burrow for shelter, demonstrating an average lifespan of 4-6 years and a penchant for hibernation during winter.

Measuring between 15 and 30 centimeters, the hedgehog is a small marvel, with a tail ranging from 1 to 6 centimeters, seldom approaching a kilogram in weight. Its elongated muzzle features a distinctive large black nose, adding to its charming appearance. Short and stocky legs, boasting long feet with pointed toes and nails, complete this delightful ensemble.

What truly captures the imagination is the hedgehog’s unique set of characteristics. Its endearing physical traits, from the charming pear-shaped body to the seasonal color-changing spines, make it a fascinating presence in the natural world.

Hedgehog vs. Porcupine

Despite similarities, significant differences exist between hedgehogs and porcupines.

The latter, from the Hystricidae family, is larger, almost twice the size of a hedgehog.

Porcupines raise shorter keratin spines when threatened, unlike the hedgehog’s longer, non-detachable spines. Porcupines are herbivores, while hedgehogs, belonging to the Erethizontidae family, feed on insects, earthworms, and small animals.

Hedgehog: Reproduction

Hedgehogs reach maturity at about one year. Mating, occurring from April to September, involves a complex ritual known as the ‘hedgehog carousel.’ The female, after a prolonged courtship, may accept the male, leading to a brief mating period.

Summer births yield 3-6 pups per brood, born without spines and blind. After weaning, the pups stay with their mother for several months.


Hedgehogs, belonging to the Erinaceidae family, are great sleepers, hibernating in winter due to metabolic changes and pituitary gland stimulation. Autumn binges prepare them for hibernation, storing leaves and grass for warmth.

As the sole insectivore that undergoes hibernation in winter, the hedgehog initiates preparations for its extended rest at the onset of the first climatic changes. Notably, during autumn, the hedgehog engages in substantial feasts, strategically accumulating provisions and meticulously crafting a cozy bed. This hibernation period, lasting several months from around October to April, prompts the hedgehog to fortify itself by stocking up on supplies and creating a snug retreat adorned with layers of leaves and dry grass. This seasonal behavior showcases the hedgehog’s instinctual response to climatic shifts, highlighting its resourceful approach to ensuring a comfortable and well-prepared haven for the winter months.


What do hedgehogs eat?

Hedgehogs are primarily insectivores, meaning their diet primarily consists of insects. They have a particular affinity for beetles, caterpillars, earthworms, and other small invertebrates. In addition to insects, hedgehogs also consume small snakes, snails, spiders, and millipedes. Their diet may vary slightly depending on the availability of these prey items in their environment.

Interestingly, hedgehogs are opportunistic feeders, and in the absence of their preferred insect fare, they may incorporate other small animals into their diet. This can include small reptiles, amphibians, such as frogs and toads, and even – very occasionally – small mammals.

While their natural diet is heavily focused on protein-rich invertebrates, hedgehogs might also consume fruits, mushrooms, berries, and acorns, especially when these items are available in their surroundings. It’s important to note that when kept as pets, the diet of a domesticated hedgehog may differ from that of its wild counterparts, and they are often fed a combination of vegetables and meat-based commercial hedgehog food to meet their nutritional needs.

Keeping a Hedgehog as a Pet

Hedgehogs are not typical pets, requiring space and minimal affection. They should be able to roam freely in the home or garden. Socializing with them involves brief daily interactions to build trust.

Actually, they are relatively low-maintenance compared to traditional pets, requiring minimal grooming and not emitting strong odors. Hedgehogs are solitary animals, making them suitable for those seeking a more independent pet.

However, there are considerations to ponder. Hedgehogs are nocturnal animals, which may affect their interaction with owners during the day. Their spines, while fascinating, require careful handling, especially since they could carry bacteria (That’s also why we recommend to avoid keeping hedgehogs if you have little children). Additionally, they need specific temperature conditions to thrive.

For prospective owners, creating a suitable habitat is crucial. Ensure the cage is escape-proof with a solid floor, use paper-based bedding, and include a smooth-sided wheel for exercise. Hedgehog-proof your home by eliminating potential hazards, and monitor them closely when outside the cage due to their burrowing tendencies.

Maintaining a balanced diet is essential, consisting of hedgehog-specific pellets, supplemented by insects and small amounts of fruits and vegetables. Live prey can be introduced for enrichment, but caution is advised.

Prepare for your hedgehog’s arrival by ensuring they have a spacious, escape-proof cage with a solid floor to prevent any entanglements. Furnish their enclosure with newspaper or paper-based bedding. Hedgehog-proof your home by eliminating small items that could be swallowed and avoiding potential trapping spots. Since hedgehogs love to explore, allocate extra space outside the cage for them to roam.

Exercise is crucial to prevent hedgehogs from becoming overweight. Provide a smooth-sided wheel for nightly running sessions. Allow your hedgehog to acclimate to its new environment naturally; give them a few days to settle in.

Maintain a balanced diet with hedgehog-specific pellet formulas, supplemented by insects and small portions of fruits and vegetables like beans, peas, cooked carrots, and apples. Avoid nuts, seeds, or hard foods. Mimic their wild instincts by occasionally offering live prey in limited quantities, such as insects, for a more enriched experience.

Hedgehogs in the Garden

If a hedgehog is found in the garden, creating a suitable environment is essential. Provide hiding spots, a water source, and consider their nocturnal habits. Hedgehogs are beneficial as pest controllers, naturally managing insect populations in gardens.

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